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The Synergy Effect of Glucosamine, Chondroitin and Curcumin for Pain Submitted
By Jarrow Formulas

One in five, or about 23% of adults in the United States today, has doctor-diagnosed joint concerns or discomfort (CDC). What's more, many of these sufferers have found themselves on conventional therapies that come with a host of unwanted side effects, prompting the search for viable alternatives. Fortunately, years of accumulating research has shown that there are several nutraceuticals that hold great promise in managing joint discomfort, with solid data to back up their use.

Glucosamine, chondroitin, and curcumin each have a long history of support of joint discomfort with studies that spotlight their roles in cartilage protection, precursors to cartilage formation, and promoters of a normal inflammatory response. The Landmark GAIT trial (Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial), the first largescale, multicenter clinical study to test the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate on knee osteoarthritis, found that the glucosamine/chondroitin combo provides statistically significant pain relief compared with placebo (NIH. gov). Furthermore, the data on the powerful benefits of the nutraceutical, curcumin in maintaining a normal inflammatory response just keeps building. When you also add in the fact that they work in synergy and are more powerful together than they are on their own, these key players are worthy of serious consideration when looking to ease discomfort and improve joint health.

A BIT ABOUT JOINTS
Our cartilage is made up of collagen fibers which impart tensile strength, along with proteoglycan molecules (like chondroitin), which serve to cushion the impact of pressure. These proteoglycan molecules are made from a linear core protein with hundreds of molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), attached to a matrix of hyaluronic acid. The stressors of a busy lifestyle combined with increasing age can contribute to a slow breakdown of healthy cartilage and eventual nutrient and fluid deprivation of the affected cartilage, which can lead to unwanted, long-term discomfort.

KEEPING THINGS FLEXIBLE WITH GLUCOSAMINE
Glucosamine is a naturally-occurring amino sugar, and the most fundamental building block for making glycolipids, glycoproteins, hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. Meta-analyses have long confirmed positive trends for the use of glucosamine and several strong gold standard studies, in addition to the GAIT trial, have shown its efficacy in reducing joint symptoms. In a double-blind trial of 178 patients with knee discomfort, 1,500 mg of glucosamine sulfate led to significant improvement in symptoms after four weeks and continued to improve two weeks after treatment was stopped. In addition, a recent study of data from a French database of over 11,000 adults taking a glucosamine supplement showed a significant improvement in joint discomfort, functional limitation, and quality of life.

CHONDROITIN: MANAGING THE PRESSURE WITH GOOD HYDRATION
Complementing the building block effect of glucosamine, chondroitin acts to hydrate joint tissues so they can better endure the pressure of compression placed on the joint, and helps to properly rehydrate when the pressure is released. There is also evidence that chondroitin helps support a normal inflammatory response, especially in the synovial cartilage, inhibiting cartilagedegrading enzymes. Like glucosamine, chondroitin has been shown in numerous placebo-controlled trials to significantly improve joint mobility and comfort in doses of about 800 mg/day compared to placebo. In a recent pilot study, a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of 69 patients were given either 800 mg chondroitin sulfate or placebo once daily for 6 months, followed by an open-label phase of six months in which patients in both groups received chondroitin sulfate 800 mg once daily. Incredibly, the chondroitin sulfate group showed significantly less cartilage volume loss than the placebo group, as early as six months into the study.

THEN ADD SOME SPICE: THE BALANCING ROLE OF CURCUMIN
The active compound in turmeric, curcumin is an orange-colored spice that has been used for thousands of years in cooking and medicine, is a potent cellular antioxidant. Curcumin is best known for it's crucial role in balancing inflammation in many different bodily systems. Unlike some conventional treatments, it works through multiple pathways and on more than one target to promote a normal inflammatory response in those with joint pain and discomfort. A 2012 pilot study showed the profound effects of this age-old spice. In the study, a curcumin product reduced joint pain and swelling in patients with joint complaints better than a conventional treatment. An even more recent randomized doubleblind, placebo-control, parallel-group clinical trial in which patients with mild-to-moderate knee discomfort were assigned to curcuminoids (1,500 mg/day in three divided doses) or matched placebo for six weeks found curcuminoids were associated with significantly greater reductions in discomfort scores compared with placebo.

Overall, the combination of glucosamine, chondroitin, and curcumin is a powerhouse of protection for those with vulnerable joints, and the three offer a researchdriven, multi-pronged approach for those looking to optimize joint health that is worthy of consideration.

REFERENCES:
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8. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6 (Suppl A):14-21
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10. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Jun;70(6):982-9.
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