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State-of-the-Art Nutrients for Mitochondria Submitted by LifeExtension
All cells in our bodies contain tiny organelles called mitochondria that function to produce cellular energy by means of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and by tissue type. A human cell can have from a few to several thousand mitochondria.
One of the most serious events that cause the loss of cellular vitality is the depletion of energy-producing function. Cells require healthy mitochondrial activity to perform life-sustaining metabolic processes. As mitochondrial function weakens, so does the vitality of organs such as the heart and brain, or in some cases, the entire body.1
In order for the mitochondria to create the energy needed to sustain cellular function, fatty acids (which serve as the mitochondria's fuel) must be transported through the cell membrane and into the mitochondria.2
We now have access to a state-of-the-art nutritional formula called Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® that not only protects delicate cellular structures and enables cells to perform life-sustaining metabolic processes, it also helps generate new mitochondria. This formula is designed to counteract age-related structural and functional changes and promote biogenesis with these unique ingredients:
Carnosine — As humans age, their proteins become irreversibly damaged by glycation reactions. Glycation is the cross-linking of proteins or lipids and sugar to form nonfunctioning advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the body, which can lead to alterations of normal cell function. Carnosine is not only the premier antiglycating agent, but also, it protects neurons against reactive and cytotoxic protein carbonyl species associated with normal aging.3
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) — This next generation cellular rejuvenator triggers growth of new mitochondria in aging cells and activates genes involved in protecting delicate structures within the mitochondria.4
Luteolin — Unremitting systemic inflammation is involved with virtually every undesirable consequence of aging. Culprits behind inflammatory reactions are pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Luteolin is a super-potent plant extract that has been shown to suppress these inflammatory cytokines.5
Benfotiamine — Benfotiamine blocks multiple destructive biochemical pathways, including AGEs' formation pathway,6 which is induced by higher than desirable blood glucose levels.7 Human mortality studies indicate that ideal fasting glucose levels are between 74–85 mg/ dL. Yet many aging people have fasting glucose above 90 mg/dL, which is less than optimal. Benfotiamine can activate glucose metabolism and promote already healthy blood glucose levels already within normal range. In addition, benfotiamine exhibits direct antioxidative capacity and prevents induction of DNA damage.8
Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate (P5P)— Aging results in the formation of toxic advanced glycation end products throughout the body. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 that has been shown to protect against both lipid and protein glycation reactions.9
R-Lipoic Acid — Free radical activity in the mitochondria plays a major role in the loss of cellular vitality. The microencapsulated Bio- Enhanced® R-lipoic acid facilitates youthful mitochondrial energy output while guarding against free radicals. Two forms of lipoic acid are sold on the supplement market, but R-lipoic acid is far more potent.10
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate — The amino acid L-carnitine is required to transport fats into the mitochondria to be burned for cellular energy. ArginoCarn® Acetyl-L-carnitine arginate is a patented form of carnitine that has been shown in cell cultures to stimulate the growth of neurites.11
Taking all of these ingredients separately would be prohibitively expensive. Smart shoppers can benefit from all of them in this one costeffective, comprehensive formulation to promote mitochondrial structure, function, and formation.
1. Alt Med Rev. 2009; 14(3):268-77.
2. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:406
3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 26;1486(1):1-17.
4. Alt Med Rev. 2009;
5. Hormones (Athens). 2008 Apr-Jun;7(2):123-32.
7. Life Sci. 2007 Nov 30;81(23-24):1602-14.
8. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):294-9.
9. Acta Diabetol. 2001;38(3):135-8.
10. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Apr;1126:288-90.
11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Apr 16;221(2):422-9.
12. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):268-93.
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