Simplifying the K Confusion
Fractures are a serious problem resulting from skeletal unloading in handicapped children. A case report was published of an institutionalized, bedridden, eight year-old girl with Arnold-Chiari deformity with low bone mineral density (BMD) whose BMD increased with MK4 treatment. MK4 also inhibited druginduced bone loss in rats; prevented and increased bone formation in neurectomized rats (an animal model to increase risk of osteoporosis); prevented and increased bone formation in orchidectomized rats(an animal model for secondary osteoporosis caused by testosterone deficiency); and improved healing time and bone quality in experimentally-induced osteotomy in rats alone and in the presence of glucocorticoids.
MK4 for Cardiovascular Health
MK4 affects proteins involved in the process of arterial calcifications, also called hardening of the arteries, which can cause heart attacks. In one study of the effect of MK4 on this process, the researchers concluded, "These findings suggest that MK4 acts as an anti-calcification component in the vessel wall." And in another study, MK4 (but not vitamin K1) was shown to prevent calcium buildup in arteries.
MK4 for Brain and Peripheral Nervous System Health
In the brain, MK4 is involved in maintaining and promoting healthy nerves as part of the pathway for the production of sphingolipids. Sphingolipids are the lining around nerve cells that allow for healthy nerve impulses. The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. Nerves going to and from the spinal cord to muscles, bone, skin, and internal organs make up the peripheral nervous system. Nerves provide a common pathway for electrochemical communication to and from tissues throughout the body. Each nerve is covered externally by a dense sheath of connective tissue (collagen), the epineurium. Surrounding nerves are "myelin sheaths." MK4 promotes collagen production and in the brain, MK4 accumulates in the mid-brain, pons medulla, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, thalamus, hippocampus, and striatum, meaning that MK4 may have powerful beneficial effects on brain and nerve function.
MK4 Reduces Inflammatory Markers
Inflammation plays a role in the initiation and progression of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and depression. MK4 reduces the expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), a major marker of inflammation.
MK4 Dose and Safety
The dose approved in Japan for osteoporosis is 45 mg daily of MK4. All the clinical trials on osteoporosis have used 45 mg daily, except one, which used a lower dose and did not show a benefit. So be sure to take the 45 mg daily for bone health. More than 6,000 patients have been given MK4 in published studies for up to eight years, even some with kidney failure and liver cirrhosis without any dangerous side effects.
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